The region offers the traveller a rich and diverse architectonic and cultural heritage from the typical architecture Museums, represented by the cattle crushes, forges, traditional washing facilities and houses, without forgetting the tourist charm of the monumental hydraulic constructions.
El Atazar’s founding might have its origin in an Islamic camp of the XII century. Though the evidences that sustain this hypothesis are not very solid, so the founding of the town probably followed the same settlement pattern used in the rest of cores of the region, groups of shepherds constructed huts and stables next to the grasslands and ended up building permanent homes. El Atazar was linked to the Comunidad de Villa y Tierra de Buitrago, it set itself up after the Privilegio de Repoblacion de Alfonso VII in 1134.In 1490 El Atazar acquired the title of Villa.
In 1833 el Atazar passes to be part of Madrid’s Province.
In the XX century, with the construction of the Atazar reservoir in 1972, some of the best lands of the council, the Riato Mill and the road that joined Atazar to Cervera were flooded. Being this a decisive factor for its economic and social development.
El Atazar was declared Core of Rural Interest in the Architectural Inventory of 1970.
The present settlement of the El Berrueco Village is dated to the X and XI centuries.
El Berrueco goes from being a small village to become a small town in 1593, after many years of shortage, fights and sacrifices. Some years before, in 1575, Felipe II takes possession of the Uceda Village and the places that belonged to the Toledo’s archbishopric thanks to the license given out by the Pope Gregorio XIII, that entitles him to sell ecclesiastic assets, except convents, churches and to take advantage of tithe, although he could sell for example fortresses and villages.
The Treasury Council of the King confirms that the taxes that the Uceda Village and its vicinities were paying ascended to 50.253 “maravedis” a year that were being paid to the Toledo archbishopric and from that moment pass to the Castilla Royal Crown. The Crown takes possession of the Uceda Village and vicinities the 1st of January of 1575 by a letter sent in this date by the Royal Treasury of Felipe II to the Toledo archbishopric. In that time Uceda was composed by the following villages: Alpedrete, Valdepeñas, Tortuero, Valdesotos, Puebla de los Valles, Matarrubia, La Casa, Villaseca, Fuente el Fresno, Fuente la Iguera, Viñuelas y Valcamino –its attachment -, Cabanillas, Venturada and Redueña.A few years after, El Berrueco and some other villages take advantage of the occasion the Royal Treasury of Felipe II is giving them to redeem and estimate the rents that were being done to them and presents a long term request, because of this he had many fights with the Uceda Count and his heirs, fights that the Uceda Village and its vicinities win.
In the XIX the new demarcation separates it permanently from Uceda and in 1833 El Berrueco passes to form part of the Community of Madrid. In the middle of the XIX century with the Mendizabal church land sales part of the municipal assets are sold and part of the lands are bought in 1898 by the council neighbours creating the Neighbour Association of El Berrueco.
In the XX century one of the facts that will influence more its evolution will be the construction of the El Atazar reservoir in 1976, which occupies a considerable extension to the north-east of the council. Nowdays El Berrueco has a population of 600.
According to tradition, its name comes from the many deer that breed in the lands of the Boyal grove and vineyards. The name “de Buitrago” was added in the XIX century because of its dependence in medieval times to the lordship of the same name.
Cervera had its origin in the Arabic era, its importance emerge with the Christian repopulation, being shepherds of Sepulveda the ones in charge of repopulating and exploiting the region.
It belonged to the lordship of Buitrago until the abolishment of the lordship regimen at the beginning of the XIX century, then it passed on to administratively depend of Cuarto de la Jara, with Robledillo, Berzosa, Paredes and Serrada.
As the rest of the council’s towns the economic activity was centred in livestock supported by the goat and the “churra” sheep herds. The land was not suitable for the agricultural exploitation, even though a survival agricultural activity existed, dedicated to the production of wheat and rye fundamentally. Most part of the lands however were exclusively dedicated to the livestock’s alimentation, constituted in great part by the communal grasslands and the Dehesa Boyal. Also vineyards were cultivated in Cervera, because of being next to the ones in Robledillo, formed an owners’ community between both towns and in 1566 they promulgated their own regulations over the crops.
In the XX century, even though there was a certain recuperation of the livestock in the first part of the century, this activity has been progressively disappearing. The construction of the Atazar reservoir meant a radical change in this town’s economy when the best lands were submerged under the reservoir and today we barely can find any farms, and the ones we find appear like small gardens scattered around the urban core.
In the council area of Patones there have been some archaeological findings of singular
relevance which cultural adscription starts in the Upper Palaeolithic era.These findings are located in the secondary limestone rocky outcrop that goes through the council from east to west. This area is named “las Calerizas” and in its numerous cavities and natural harbours, there have been findings that go from the Upper Paleolithic to the Bronze Age. In caves like: Reguerillo, del Aire, las Avispas, these findings acquire a national importance level.
From the Iron Age we find the Castro de la Dehesa de la Oliva, a small fortified village occupied in the II century BC. The occupation of the settlement continued during the roman domination era, being found numerous coins from that time.
There is no historical news of Patones until well in the XVI century. In the year 1555, there is a
census that is preserved in the Simancas Archive and that mentions the Hoz de los Patones’s farm.
In 1687 it appears like a neighbourhood of the Uceda’ Villa. To this century belongs the oldest document that gives reference to the existence of the so called King of the Patones. This “king” was some sort of mayor or peace judge, and elderly that administer justice between his neighbours. The first one that we have documental proof of his existence would be the one that visited Cardinal Moscoso in 1653 on his way to Torrelaguna, to ask for the construction of a Hermitage in town. The last “king” that we have news from, finished his mandate around 1750.
Since its foundation, Patones was part of the Villa of Uceda until the middle part of the XVIII
century whhen it became independent from it.
The XVIII century will bring an economic growth to all the area, a growth that will be recognized in the “Catastro de Ensenada” of 1751.
At the end of the century begins one of the most relevant constructions destined for water supply, the Cabarrus Chanel.
From the Independence War in the XIX century there are documents in the City’s archive that
give account of the tributes paid to the nearby French detachments.
In the XIX century, with the new administrative division, Patones is incorporated to the Province of Madrid. In this same period, in this council the first water canalization to Madrid works are undertaken, with the construction of the emblematic Ponton de la Oliva’s dam.
Throughout the XX century, in a gradual way, the residents of Patones begin descending to the Jarama vega (the fertile low lands) building the new town, Patones de Abajo. This move was generalized in the 1960’s leaving Patones de Arriba (the old town) almost abandoned.
Starting in the 1970s, in Patones de Arriba an acquisition and house rehabilitation process for the use of houses as a second residence and instalment of business and the hotel industry begins.
The peak of the rural tourism and the charm of the town allow that day by day the inflow of visitors increases.
Patones de Arriba in 1999 was declared a Cultural Interest Asset.
At the end of the XII century the four towns that now make Puentes Viejas became part of the Señorio de Buitrago.
In 1492, there are new news about some other towns of Puentes Viejas in the possession inventories that the Jewish left in the Villa and Tierra de Buitrago.
For judicial affairs the council was divided in Quarters. Therefore, Paredes y Serrada became part of the Jara, Mangiron was part of Garganta and Cincovillas part of Aledaños.
Before the XVII century, there was hardly any information about Puente Viejas’ demography, society or economic relations. Though it is known, that the effective use of livestock and forest resources where regulated by regulations. The first recorded regulations date from XVI.
The first population records are provided by the census of the XVI and XVII centuries in which it is reflected that the area went through an economic and population decline.
In the XVII century there was a clear recuperation, increasing the population in all the town’s cores. From this century we obtain the Catastro de Ensenada (Census of Ensenada) and the description of Lorenzana.
Their economy was based in livestock because the agriculture was very poor.
The four towns had livestock and sheep fundamentally, but also there were cattle, horses, donkeys and pigs. And at least with the exception of Cincovillas, they had a rangeland management in each town where the labour livestock would graze and were sometimes coal was obtained.
In every council two Mayors would get elected, one would represent the exempt neighbours and “hijosdalgos” (Spanish nobility) and the other included in the Third Estate.
In the XIX century, the abolition of the Manorialism or Seigneuralism comes to effect, the crisis of the livestock and the disappearance of the “Mesta” (powerful association of sheep holders) with the ecclesiastic and civil confiscations and the new territorial division of 1833. By which the four towns of Puentes Viejas start to depend of Madrid through the correction of Torrelaguna. Cincovillas became a Mangiron annex and Serrada ceased to be Berroza’s annex
to become its own council. All these changes will influence in a decisive form in a political, economic and social level.
Population grows slowly during all the century.
In the XX century, the construction of the El Villar and Puente Viejas Dams meant the arrival of new workers and offer of new jobs for the area residents.
Though, that in the first quarter of the century the growth of the population is maintained, there is a reverse in this progression, especially after the 50’s with the migration to Madrid and agricultural abandonment.
Nowadays there is still a certain maintain of the importance of a livestock reconverted to milk cattle, that beside the construction and services constitute the principal sources of income.
Robledillo became part of the Casa de los Mendoza in the XIV century, one of the members, Iñigo Lopez de Mendoza, the Marques of Santillana, mentioned Robledillo in one of his popular “serranilla” (a lyric composition about rustic subjects).
In 1612 the Concejo de Robledillo (town council) bought from a private the El Villar territory already deserted, paying with the product of the cut down of 1.500 feet of holm oaks from the Dehesa de Casasola and the sale of a mill in the Atazar’s villa.
The XVII was a century of economic crisis, decadence and religious fervour (there were six different brotherhoods in town). Only at the end of this century, there was an economic recovery and Robledillo reached 244 residents in 1787. The economy continued to be centred in livestock (sheep, churra breed, goats and pigs), agriculture (wheat, rye, vineyards and small vegetable farms) apiculture and firewood.
In the XIX century, the successive Ecclesiastical Confiscations of the Mortmain assets meant a fundamental change for the economic structure of the territory. The land was concentrated in few hands due to this there was a scale jump in the property dimensions, and added to the introduction of new cultivations like potatoes and the improvement of techniques, it allowed the development of an agriculture not limited only to selfconsume, but allowing it to produce a surplus. All of these brought an increment or population that continued until the XX century. At around 1847, El Atazar was incorporated as a Robledillo’s annex, staying dependent until
1928. Coinciding with this era of relative prosperity, the Parish Church was built (1893) and a new type of houses appeared, with more urban characteristics.
The XX century didn’t bring any transcendental changes to Robledillo. Productions descended, abandoning almost in its totality the agriculture activities. The livestock also goes down.
There is an increment of people from the big city buying a second house for weekend and vacation retreat specially, in the urban core.